Lemon – Low FODMAP

http://www.compoundchem.com

The words of the song the Lemon Tree, the words are undeniable “Lemon tree very pretty, and the lemon flower is sweet, but the fruit of the poor lemon is impossible to eat.” Many people with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GORD) and IBS avoid all citrus fruit due to reporting of them making symptoms of reflux worse. Yet, citrus fruits are allowed on the low FODMAP diet. I actually love lemon, the flavour is sharp and strong but has to be handled carefully in recipes to prevent is tasting like a popular cold remedy.

One point to mention here is that the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance on reflux does not specify a reduction of citrus fruit consumption as part of lifestyle GORD treatment. The reduction of coffee, chocolate, alcohol and fatty foods are the main focus of dietary lifestyle factors. Although the date of the review of this lifestyle advice is 2004 – so somewhat old data, but this is fine if no new developments have come to light. It is also worth noting that the measure of acidity, pH, is very low for stomach acid (2-3), for lemon Juice, it is 2, so not much different than the pH of gastric juices anyway. But people do report problems, so we do treat everyone as an individual and they can be reduced to a tolerable level, when needed.

Reduction of acidic foods also can reduce the amount of vitamin C in the diet, as ascorbic acid is found in higher levels in citrus fruits. Vitamin C full deficiency is rare in the UK, although arguably becoming more common due to fad diets, such as complete carnivore diets. Our bodies cannot make it, unlike other animals. Not much data is available on low vitamin C intake and GORD, but the effects of deficiency include damage to skin and likely the GI tract, which has a fast turnover of cells, not that helpful for those who have sensitive guts. The requirement for vitamin C might be increased in people who have diarrhoea – although caution is advised as vitamin C supplements above 3g/day (three times the amount of a standard over the counter supplement) will increase symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhoea. As ever, it is better to get your nutrition from food, so once your symptoms have reduced, re-introduce those low FODMAP foods you have stopped eating, try them again, you might find that you can eat them after all.

Lemon butter drops

These little biscuits are only a mouthful – just a bite – but are a divine melt in the mouth treat. Especially nice for this time of year, Spring and Easter, (when Easter does arrive in April).

Ingredients

100g butter

200g rice flour

1/2g zanthan gum

Grated rind of 2 unwaxed lemons

1 egg

50g of gluten free self-raising flour plus extra for rolling out.

Filling (lemon curd)

4 wax free lemons – juice and rind

350g castor sugar

200g butter

1 1/2 tablespoons of corn flour

4 eggs

Method

Add the butter and sugar and cream (mix) together well.

Then add the grated lemon rind and egg, mix well

Add the flour and bring together into a dough, if it doesn’t bind together add a little more flour till it does.

Roll thinly and cut out small rounds (I made 40 with the mix)

Cook for 10 minutes at gas mark 6.

cool

Make the curd

Whisk together 4 eggs

Juice and grate the lemons and weigh out the other ingredients

Warm the eggs whilst adding the other ingredients and cook till thickened

Cool and add to the jars

(This is based on a Delia Smith recipe but with additional cornflour to make the curd thick enough to sandwich between the biscuits.)

Recipe makes enough for 20 small sandwich biscuits and enough curd to add to a litre and a half volume – more than enough to add to sterilized jam jars and they will keep for a few weeks.It does go a long way so you don’t need to use much for a sweet and sharp lemon flavour.


Broccoli

Broccoli is a newer addition to the low fodmap family – although particular attention needs to be made concerning which parts are low fodmap. Growing conditions and plant storage of FODMAPs affects the fodmap content of foods. A good example here is the ability to use the green parts of leeks and spring onions and not the bulb (the storage part of the plant.) The same is true for broccoli, the leaves and a small amount of stalk (less than 50g) are low fodmap – the stems alone above 50g per portion are not suitable. Testing individual components of food gives us more information about its fodmap content, and we are continuing to learn more about the diet with the valuable testing of the fodmap content of foods. It is thanks to the continued work by Kings College Nutrition department that has led to more information. Increased testing increases available foods and this makes the diet more varied, which is nutritionally more sound, but can add to the complexity of the diet making access to up to date information more critical. The best sources of information are dietitians who are fodmap trained, which is why it is recommended not to complete this diet alone.

What are the benefits of broccoli?

Nutritionally broccoli is suggested to be a powerhouse vegetable, although so are most others in their own way! The infographic above indicates that it has some good cancer-preventing properties via the content of sulforaphane – content of this chemical is affected by cooking time, and its benefits are debatable, as much of the evidence comes from studies in mouse models and cells in Petri dishes, one or two small studies in humans have been done, but certainly more information is needed. Broccoli provides dietary fibre content, which is always important for people with IBS. It contains good levels of vitamin A (more in the tops than the stalks), Vitamin C (but this will depend on how long the broccoli is cooked) and vitamin K.

What are the effects on the colonic microbiome? Well, in a small study broccoli consumption altered the variety of Firmicutes (reduced) and Bacteroides (increased) although it is really too early to say if this is beneficial in IBS or for those following the low fodmap diet. Interestingly Firmicutes have been found to be increased in people with IBS and reduction in the numbers of Bacteroides – perhaps this just represents people with IBS reducing consumption of those foods that are suggested widely on social media to increase symptoms, such as cruciferous vegetables. It would be interesting to know if including broccoli amounts recommended in the low fodmap diet improves these bacteria numbers and whether this is clinically significant.

What broccoli is unlikely to do:

  1. Detox your body – your liver, kidneys and lungs are all you need for this.
  2. Reduce ‘inflammation’ we don’t have enough information that broccoli has any effect for this unspecific term.
  3. Reduce pain in fibromyalgia

I suggest cutting off the stem of the broccoli as close to the head as possible and discarding (or using for other members of the family or feeding to rabbits), then trimming the stalks contained within the base of the head – you can then weight the stems and calculate how much to add to the dish per portion.

What other cruciferous Brassicaceae vegetables are good to include in the low fodmap diet? Pak Choy, choy sum, kale, white cabbage and red cabbage – so do include these as well as other low fodmap vegetables – remember variety in the diet is best!

Now for the recipe:

Vegan broccoli and pine nut pasta – Low FODMAP

Ingredients

300g Gluten free pasta

40g Pine nuts

1 head of broccoli

2.5 cm square of Vegusto Prosociano

1 Tablespoon of garlic infused oil

A few basil leaves

Seasoning to taste

Method

Chop the broccoli close to the head and then into small ‘trees’

Cook the pasta in boiling water using the packet directions adding seasoning

Add 1 tablespoon of garlic infused oil to a pan and roast the pine nuts.

Add the basil, cooked pasta and broccoli to the pan with a tablespoon of water the pasta was cooked in.

Combine and serve with a sprinkling of the cheese for each portion

Serves 4

https://www.nhs.uk/news/cancer/broccoli-and-breast-cancer/

https://modalitypartnership.nhs.uk/self-help/livewell/topics/superfoods/is-broccoli-a-superfood ,

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30317146 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317767/

An alternative low fodmap Christmas cake

If you have fructose malabsorption and/or fructans malabsorption and you are really missing a Christmas celebration cake – look no further. Christmas cake is exceptional – like the Wedding cake, but in recent years the heavy fruit cake has gone out of favour somewhat. It is also not really suitable for the low fodmap diet despite only a small slice being recommended, being packed with dried fruit and made using wheat flour. This alternative has ingredients that provide a Christmas taste and is packed full of flavour.

This is a spiced whiskey ginger and chestnut cake

Ingredients

225g Dairy free margarine

340g Dark muscovado sugar

2 eggs (or 40g egg alternative if you have an egg allergy)

240g Self-raising gluten free flour

100g Chestnut flour

1/2 teaspoon of salt

1 1/2 Teaspoons of nutmeg

1 1/2 Teaspoons of ground cloves

2 Teaspoons of ground cinnamon

2 Teaspoons of ginger

100g of crystallised ginger pieces

Method

Weigh out the dry ingredients and sieve them well into a bowl.

Cream the butter and sugar in another bowl. Add the eggs to a measuring jug and beat them with a fork, then slowly add the egg to the wet mix while beating.

If the mix looks slightly curdled (grainy) than add a tablespoon of flour to the wet ingredients and continue to mix it well.

Add the dry ingredients to the wet mix and stir them in using a metal spoon and a cutting and folding action, to not lose the air you have already added.

Chop up the ginger pieces finely and add to the mix. 

Place the mix into a greased 18cm cake tin.

Cook in an oven for 2 hours at gas mark 4 or 180 degrees C or until a cake skewer comes out of the mix clean (the surface of the cake was dry, and this might give a false  reading with the skewer, ensure you pierce the surface with a wider hole to allow wet mix to come out.)

I soaked the cake with whiskey to give it an added depth of flavour!

Chicken goujons – low fodmap

What are goujons? They are small chicken fillets that are coated in breadcrumbs. They are fairly easy to make using gluten free breadcrumbs but it is important to use the correct ones for the low fodmap diet. Clearspring rice crumbs are probably the best option. Some gluten free breadcrumbs use a blend including gram flour – this is chickpea flour and is a source of GOS, it might be OK for some people with IBS because of the small portions of crumbs used to coat ingredients – but pure rice crumbs are better and they are wholegrain too – bonus for those with constipation! Hale and Hearty breadcrumbs contain inulin so this should not be used for a low fodmap diet. You can make your own breadcrumbs with gluten free bread if you wish, again choosing wholegrain bread to give the dish added fibre – a way of using up stale gluten free bread and fibre is great for gut health! For health this is a recipe to have occasionally as it is a fried dish – but suitable for those who are underweight as frying adds additional calories to the dish. Mayonnaise is another addition but take care with ones that say low fat mayo as these can have increased amount of skimmed milk powder – a source of lactose. So it has to be full fat and a small portion! The dish includes making your own garlic infused oil at the start of the process – follow this part of the recipe closely, slicing the garlic makes it easier to remove it all before frying the goujons, so you remove all the fructans included in the clove. Don’t be tempted to use a garlic crusher as you cannot then remove all the pieces. I have added the goujons to a gluten free pitta bread with salad leaves.

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Ingredients

Gluten free four (100g)

1 egg

Gluten Free Breadcrumbs (1/2 pack)

seasoning

1 pack of chicken mini breast fillets

Rapeseed oil – enough for frying

1 pack of gluten free pitta breads

Salad leaves of your choice (I used chard and radicchio but lettuce leaves are another option.)

1 clove of garlic.

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Method

Wash Hands.

Wash and chop the salad leaves and prepare the pitta bread and put these on a plate away from the work surface you are using to prepare the goujons. If you have work surfaces on either side of the oven this is good, you can use one side for raw chicken preparation and one for cooked. Do this before handling the raw chicken fillets.

Open the packet of chicken fillets and use immediately – please do not wash them, they don’t need it, plus washing raw chicken is a food poisoning hazard – it can easily spread bacteria around the kitchen.

Place the flour and seasoning on a plate, crack the egg and mix well with a fork on a plate and breadcrumbs on separate plates. Dip the chicken fillets into the flour first, then egg and then the breadcrumbs – coat each fillet well and don’t forget the edges.

When coated, pile them on a dish for frying later.

Clean work surfaces down and wash your hands again after handling raw chicken.

Slice the garlic clove (this is better than crushing as it makes it easier to remove the pieces before frying the chicken.)

Add oil to the pan and fry the clove quickly then remove all the pieces of garlic from the pan.

Add the chicken goujons and fry till golden. Don’t overload the pan as this will lead to steaming instead of frying and soggy breadcrumbs.

Add 2 slices of goujons to each pitta – makes 5.

Serve with green salad.

How to make an authentic low fodmap curry – vegetarian

OK – so, how on earth do you make an authentic curry without an onion base? Masala is a mix of spices that are first fried in oil to release the flavour and then finely chopped onion and garlic is added – lot’s and lot’s of onion and this is cooked before adding the other ingredients to the onion and spices. No wonder then many people with digestive problems have an issue with curry! So is curry off limits when following the low fodmap diet? Certainly not – the following recipe replaces the onion with finely chopped white cabbage. I know this does sound a little strange but trust me, give it a go and see. Now this recipe does have a large amount of oil so it is not for every day and if you have problems with food higher in oil perhaps give this recipe a miss.

Ingredients

1 teaspoon of turmeric

1 teaspoon of coriander

1 teaspoon of cumin

1 teaspoon of asafoetida

1 Jar of roasted peppers

130g of white cabbage

1 aubergine

200g of small salad potatoes (skin on)

500ml water

250 ml of oil

Fresh coriander leaves and pomegranate to decorate

Method

Add the oil to a pan and fry the spices

Chop the cabbage very finely and add to the spices and oil and fry for 5 minutes (this cooks into the dish in a similar way to onion.)

Chop the aubergine, potato and red pepper and add to the mix and cook in an oven proof dish for 3o minutes.

Add some chopped coriander leaves and serve with boiled rice or gluten free plain chapati.

The chilli is for decoration although chilli is tolerated by some people with IBS (it is low fodmap) add a small amount to the dish if you wish.

Serves 4

Mac and cheese – low fodmap

OK, so it really has an Autumnal feel today perhaps a comforting meal is required and macaroni and cheese is definitely one to make. This is a low fodmap recipe made with lactose free milk and cheese suitable for a low fodmap diet – please note that the fat content is high due to the cheese used. If you find that meals higher in fat cause symptoms it probably isn’t worth trying this recipe, although a small portion might be suitable. This is a great recipe if you are underweight and want to increase the calories in your diet. Unfortunately I didn’t have any macaroni so strictly speaking this isn’t mac and cheese but penne and cheese – you can get gluten free macaroni by ordering it on the internet but most supermarkets I use don’t stock it, which is a shame!

Ingredients

300g of gluten free pasta

560ml of lactose free whole milk

28g butter

28g cornflour

70g of cheddar cheese (I used an orange cheese for more effect)

20g parmesan

1 teaspoon mustard powder

2 slices of gluten free bread

seasoning

Extra grated cheese for topping

Method

Melt the butter in a pan and add the flour, mix well till the flour is incorporated into the butter

Start to add the milk slowly whilst keeping stirring

Add all the milk and warm the sauce till mixed

Add both cheeses to the sauce after grating

Add the mustard powder

Cook the sauce till thickened season if required (do taste the sauce first as the cheese does add flavour)

Cool whilst stirring to avoid a skin forming

Cook the pasta in water till al dente

Add the cheese sauce to the pasta and add to an oven proof dish

Top with gluten free crumbs made from the bread and the extra grated cheese

Bake in an oven for 20 minutes at gas mark 5 or 190 degrees C.

Serves 4 with a green salad